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Contents for Volume 14 Issue 1

Special Issue:Complexity and Sustainability
Guest Editor(s):Sarah J. Bell & Jennifer M. Wilby

EDGuest Editorial: The Pattern That Connects And (vii-x)
Sarah J. Bell & Jennifer M. Wilby
PRMedical Students, Climate Change And Health (1-14)
William Regan, Sarah Owen, Hannah Bakewell, Esther Jackson, Ricardo de Sousa Peixoto & Frances Griffiths
ABSTRACTClimate change is recognized as a major public health threat. Health care services are major contributors to carbon emissions. Future doctors will make clinical decisions that have consequences for the environment. However, there is no research on the views of future doctors on climate change. In this focus group study with 24 current medical students we explored climate change and health, and the role of future doctors in responding to climate change. Not all students accepted the evidence for climate change although most were aware of the implications (if it were to occur) for health. Most students thought international agreements were needed to reduce carbon emissions. All students considered doctors to be influential in society, but there was no consensus on whether and how doctors should use this influence in relation to climate change. Many future doctors remain unconvinced about climate change and are unclear about their role and responsibilities.

PRA Multi-Paradigmatic Framework To Manage Adaptation Of Socio-Ecological Systems: Design Considerations For An Andean Eco-Region (15-30)
Germán I. Andrade, Angela Espinosa, David Guzmán & Eduardo Wills-Herrera
ABSTRACTA review of current methodologies for observation, understanding, and management of vulnerable socio-ecological systems (SES) to global socio-ecological changes, makes evident that they are developed without a articulation of relevant contributions from theoretical fields, like ecology, sociology and management. Following a multi-paradigmatic approach this paper: 1) suggests a clear way to integrate such contributions by building a multi-methodological framework to observe and manage socio-ecological systems on issues related to climate change and self-governance; 2) discusses the bases for a methodology to support communities from vulnerable SES to self–organise and agree on strategic actions and responsibilities; 3) offers some examples on how it would support management of a specific context, like the one of the Fuquene Lake socio-ecological system, at the Colombian Andean Eco-region; and 4) provides directions for future research.

PREmerging Community Food Production And Pathways For Urban Landscape Transitions (31-44)
Sarah Bell & Cristina Cerulli
ABSTRACTUrban agriculture is considered to be a core element of the future of sustainable cities. This paper uses the multi-level perspective on transitions to sustainable development developed by Grin et al. (2010) and the concepts underpinning the modelling of cities as complex systems by Wilson (2010a) and Batty (2005) to analyze the potential for emerging community gardens to contribute to transitions to sustainable urban food systems. It presents the case study of a community garden established by residents of the Redfern Grove Estate in London. The project shows the importance of self-organization and emergence from local conditions, as pre-requisite for local gardens to be able to access more formal structures of support. It demonstrates the interactions between niche, regime and landscape level actors and structures in the emergence and stabilization of new projects. The paper concludes that changes in the landscape of urban food systems, including increasing food prices and growing concerns about the environmental impacts of industrial agriculture are creating conditions conducive to the emergence of community gardens.

PRUrban Water Systems In Transition (45-58)
Sarah Bell
ABSTRACTModern cities are dependent on vast infrastructure systems to deliver a constant supply of drinking water, and sewerage systems for removing surface and waste water. This paper investigates urban water infrastructure as a complex system. Existing systems are at a point of criticality as growth in demand for water outstrips local water resources. This represents a potential bifurcation point from which alternative structures and patterns of organization could emerge over coming decades. One possible pathway for future urban water systems relies upon the development of new sources of water, including desalination. This pathway continues to expand the boundaries of urban water systems, increasing entropy outside the system whilst requiring higher energy input to maintain order within the system. An alternative pathway involves the emergence of distributed systems of water collection and reuse to meet non-potable demand. This could result in increasing complexity across the city as non-potable water systems emerge at household and neighborhood scales.

CPThe Land Ethic (59-86)
Aldo Leopold (with an introduction by Sarah Bell)
FMEmerging Sustainability: Reflections On Working In Sustainability And Health (87-94)
Frances Mortimer
ABSTRACTBringing an understanding of sustainability to healthcare can improve its effectiveness while reducing environmental costs. Positioning sustainability in the professional sphere also provides an important contribution to its emergence in wider society, conferring legitimacy and generating a wealth of applied knowledge. The author considers how a number of recent initiatives have supported the emergence of sustainability thinking among the health professions, reflecting on the value of individuals and communities of practice as the focus for any change.

FMAdjacent Opportunities: Change, Change, Change—Change of Fools (95-98)
Ron Schultz