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Contents for Volume 8 Issue 2

Regular Issue

EDEditorial: An Embarrassment of Riches (iv-v)
Jeffrey A. Goldstein
ACEvolutionary Drive: New Understandings of Change in Socio-Economic Systems (2-19)
Peter M. Allen, Mark Strathern & James S. Baldwin
ABSTRACTThe question explored in this paper is how change really occurs in socio-economic systems, based on the ideas of ‘evolutionary drive’ put forward some years ago (Allen & McGlade, 1987). In this view the evolutionary process is driven by the interplay of processes that create micro-diversity, and the selection operated by the differential dynamics operated by the system. This is seen as an ongoing, continuous process of exploration and experimentation at the underlying microscopic level, leading to a strategic organization and structure at the level above—a longer term emergence at a macroscopic level. In this way, we explain the origins of emergent capabilities, and show that these minimal mechanisms are all that are required to explain (though not predict) the coevolutionary processes occurring in markets, organizations, and indeed in emergent, evolutionary communities of practice. We first establish simple ecological examples, and then provide examples from social and economic systems.

ACComplexity in Discrete Innovation Systems (20-34)
Masaaki Hirooka
ABSTRACTWe have developed a unique procedure for analyzing innovation dynamism that uses a logistic equation. This paper is a trial to clarify the complexity of innovation systems using this procedure. The innovation paradigm comprises three logistic trajectories: technology, development, and diffusion, in this order. The nonlinear nature of these trajectories has revealed various interesting characteristics of innovations. For the electronics innovation paradigm, the development trajectory comprises chain fractals of the stepwise development of IC chips, which follows Moore’s law. Electronics technologies have been adopted by various industries, and these phenomena have been discussed as ‘technology fusion’, by which fusion trajectories are clustered along the electronics development trajectory per se, forming a bundle fractal. For the development trajectories of computer, electronics, and multimedia, various elementary technological systems emerge as system fractals. The innovation paradigm is a kind of discrete system formed by knowledge transfer from person to person. That is, it is a kind of complex system, and the self-organization mechanism has been observed. The trajectory formation itself is ascribed to a kind of self-organization resulting in a deterministic locus. The diffusions of innovations gather along the upswing of a Kondratiev cycle forming a bundle fractal; cluster formation is also explained by a self-organization mechanism. The discrete system of innovation is discussed in terms of logistic mapping and an important correlation with fractal formation is mathematically revealed.

PRCoevolutionary Integration: The Co-creation of a New Organizational Form Following a Merger and Acquisition (36-47)
Eve Mitleton-Kelly
ABSTRACTDespite an apparently thorough ‘due diligence’ process, many mergers and acquisitions (M&A) still fail to meet pre-merger objectives. One of the main contributing factors is insufficient emphasis on post-merger relationships, and the development of an emergent culture to support the new organizational form. The paper will use two examples of M&A to illustrate a successful and a dysfunctional application of post-merger integration, seen from a complexity theory perspective. An ideal post-merger integration, according to complexity, would resemble the creation of a child. It has some characteristics inherited from both parents but it has its own unique personality and identity. Yet in most cases the more dominant partner tries to impose its own culture, ways of working and procedures. It expects the dependent partner to adapt to these conditions, instead of facilitating reciprocal learning and coevolution between the partners. This paper will explore the differences in attitude of the two companies and identify some of the key contributing factors to successful coevolutionary integration from a complexity theory perspective. It will do so by outlining the relevant characteristics to M&A, of organizations as complex coevolving systems. In one case it will illustrate how the innovation process regarding new product development was constrained and how this affected relationships with customers. It will also show how restrained communication and the restriction of knowledge contributed towards dysfunctional behavior. It will finally propose that coevolutionary integration may be facilitated through the co-creation of an enabling infrastructure based on social, cultural and technical conditions.

PRA Case-Study of the Three Largest Aerospace Manufacturing Organizations: An Exploration of Organizational Strategy, Innovation a (48-64)
Liz Varga & Peter M. Allen
ABSTRACTMany of the most successful firms have placed a strong emphasis on strategy. Strategies help decision-makers in organizations to think through what the organization needs to achieve and how these needs may be satisfied. This case study considers what the Chief Executive Officers of the top three aerospace manufacturers say about their strategies and how these strategies are being implemented. The aerospace manufacturing industry is interesting from a number of respects: its dependence on innovation, its global nature, its relationships with government and other firms, and the different characteristics of the civil and defence markets. This aerospace manufacturing triad is also interesting because of its industry sector coverage: one is a largely defence aerospace manufacturer, the second a largely commercial aerospace manufacturer and the third, an aerospace manufacturer with a balanced portfolio.

PHComplexity in a Complex Europe: Reflections on the Cultural Genesis of a New Science (65-76)
Damian Popolo
ABSTRACTEuropean Modernity is characterized by a fragmentation of knowledge and the raise of metaphysical methodology embedded in emerging rationalistic Science. Such developments represent some of the facets of the cultural evolution of Europe. In many cases, the triumph of rationalistic and mechanistic thought cannot be dissociated from some of the most tragic events in world history which took place in Europe during the ‘short twentieth century’. Complexity, on the other hand, also has its roots in the European intellectual heritage, and as such it should be considered as one of the paths to knowledge opened by the European philosophical tradition – arguably, a path that was lost following the ‘victory’ of rationalist approaches in the European ‘Epistemic Civil War’. As Complexity Science continues to challenge established epistemology and Europe renews its search for a new identity, this article seeks to explore the relationship between ‘Scientific Culture’ and ‘European Identity’ in the light of the relatively recent (re-) emergence of Complexity.

CPNovelty, Indeterminism, and Emergence (77-95)
W. T. Stace (with an introduction by Jeffrey A. Goldstein)
FMLessons from Complexity: The Hypotenuse - The Pathway of Peace (96-101)
Carlos E. Puente
FMEmergence and Evil (102-115)
David A. Bella
FMAdjacent Opportunities: In Service (116-117)
Ron Schultz
BRBook Reviews (118-127)
Max Boisot, Ken Baskin & Alice MacGillivray
ENEvent Notices (128-129)
ISCE Publishing